Most authorities consider that cheese was first made in the Middle East. The earliest type was a form of sour milk which came into being when it was discovered that domesticated animals could be milked. A legendary story has it that cheese was ‘discovered’ by an unknown Arab nomad. He is said to have filled a saddlebag with milk to sustain him on a journey across the desert by horse. After several hours riding he stopped to quench his thirst, only to find that the milk had separated into a pale watery liquid and solid white lumps. Because the saddlebag, which was made from the stomach of a young animal, contained a coagulating enzyme known as rennin, the milk had been effectively separated into curds and whey by the combination of the rennin, the hot sun and the galloping motions of the horse. The nomad, unconcerned with technical details, found the whey drinkable and the curds edible.
Cheese was known to the ancient Sumerians four thousand years before the birth of Christ. The ancient Greeks credited Aristaeus, a son of Apollo and Cyrene, with its discovery; it is mentioned in the Old Testament.
In the Roman era cheese really came into its own. Cheesemaking was done with skill and knowledge and reached a high standard. By this time the ripening process had been developed and it was known that various treatments and conditions under storage resulted in different flavours and characteristics.
The larger Roman houses had a separate cheese kitchen, the caseale, and also special areas where cheese could be matured. In large towns home-made cheese could be taken to a special centre to be smoked. Cheese was served on the tables of the nobility and traveled to the far corners of the Roman Empire as a regular part of the rations of the legions.
During the Middle Ages, monks became innovators and developers and it is to them we owe many of the classic varieties of cheese marketed today. During the Renaissance period cheese suffered a drop in popularity, being considered unhealthy, but it regained favour by the nineteenth century, the period that saw the start of the move from farm to factory production.
Widcome, Richard. The Cheese Book. Seacaucus: Chartwell Books, 1978.
The types of cheese that would have been found in the middle ages and are acceptable at a medieval reenactment are as follows:
Beaufort; Brie; Camembert; Cheddar (first recorded use is in 1500); Comté; Cottage; Emmenthal; Farmer’s (similar in both taste & texture to Medieval cheese); Glouscester (first recorded use is in 1697); Grana (first recorded use is in 1200), Gorgonzola (first recorded use is in 879); Gouda (first recorded use is in 1697); Gruyére; Maroilles; Mozzarella; Parmesan (first recorded use is in 1579); Port-Salut; Reblochon; Rewen/Rowen/Ruayn (Autumn cheese, made after the cattle had fed on the second growth. This was apparently a semi-soft cheese, but not as soft as a ripe modern Brie: one period recipe says to grate it. It appears to be the same cheese that in France today is called fromage de gaing. See: Tart de Bry); Ricotta (for Platina’s recipe for ricotta cheese, see: Recocta); Romano; Roquefort (first recorded use is in 1070); Spermyse (soft or cream cheese flavored with herbs); and Stilton.